IP Source

Sunday, 29 January 2012

Do you use one of these phones?

Third generation GLONASS-K is a substantial improvement of the previous generation: it is the first unpressurised GLONASS satellite with a much reduced mass (750 kg versus 1,450 kg of GLONASS-M). It has an operational lifetime of 10 years, compared to the 7-year lifetime of the second generation GLONASS-M. It will transmit more navigation signals to improve the system's accuracy, including new CDMA signals in the L3 and L5 bands which will use modulation similar to modernized GPS, Galileo and Compass. The new satellite's advanced equipment—made solely from Russian components—will allow the doubling of GLONASS' accuracy. As with the previous satellites, these are 3-axis stabilized, nadir pointing, with dual solar arrays.The first GLONASS-K satellite was successfully launched on 26 February 2011. Because of their weight reduction, GLONASS-K spacecraft can be launched in pairs from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome launch site using the substantially lower cost Soyuz-2.1b boosters or in six-at-once from the Baikonur Cosmodrome using Proton-K Briz-M launch vehicles.


Ground control

The ground control segment of GLONASS is entirely located within former Soviet Union territory. The Ground Control Center and Time Standards is located in Moscow and the telemetry and tracking stations are in Saint Petersburg, Ternopol, Eniseisk, and Komsomolsk-na-Amure.

Receivers

Septentrio, Topcon, JAVAD, Magellan Navigation, Novatel, Leica Geosystems and Trimble Inc produce GNSS receivers making use of GLONASS. NPO Progress describes a receiver called "GALS-A1" which combines GPS and GLONASS reception. SkyWave Mobile Communications manufactures an Inmarsat-based satellite communications terminal that uses both GLONASS and GPS.As of 2011, some of the latest receivers in the Garmin eTrex line also support GLONASS (along with GPS).

Various smartphones from October 2011 onwards have integrated GLONASS capability, including devices from Sony Ericsson, ZTE, Huawei, Samsung, Apple, Motorola, and Nokia.